Early iron in the eastern Rhenish Slate Mountains: the Siegerland

Frühes Eisen im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge: Siegerland

The Siegerland is one of the important German mining landscapes which ensured the supply of iron during the modern period of industrialization. Far less known is the prehistoric significance of the Siegerland: in the second half of the 1st millennium BC the region seems to have been one of the major iron suppliers of the Central German Uplands. The basis for this mining landscape is the world’s largest siderite (spathic iron) deposit in the Siegerland-Wied district. The manganese-rich weathering products of the siderite are present over wide areas and close to the surface on the summits of the mountain region and their bordering areas.

The Siegerland iron industry probably began in the 6th century BC. It appears that more people began to enter the region from the 4th century, and even more from the 3rd century BC. Previous research interpreted this development as a push to colonize new land in the mountains, however this does not altogether make sense. Unlike the favourable locations in the surrounding area, such as the West Hessian Lowlands or the Middle Rhine Valley, the Siegerland is not a suitable location for agriculture. What is uncertain is how and when the regional iron industry with its high level of technical specialization developed. The entire economic cycle of the Siegerland iron industry is as yet unexplored: did the areas of production shift over time? Was production seasonal, or was there a constant process of settlement? What strategies were pursued in local agriculture, and was the forest used systematically? What was the supra-regional significance of steel production?
After initial excavations by G. Weisgerber 30 years ago, we have been investigating the former Siegerland mining landscape, in collaboration with LWL-Archäologie (Olpe branch), since 2002. The work has led to a project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), carried out with the Archaeology Department of the Ruhr University in Bochum since 2009.
We systematically visit established mining find spots and have also discovered hundreds of new sites from all periods. More detailed studies have been carried out using combinations of prospection methods such as geophysical measurements, soil probe prospection and sondages. The aim is to reconstruct the Iron Age mining landscape and trace the production chain from ore extraction to smelting to the finishing and exporting of the steel products.
Archaeometallurgical prospections explore the various deposits in the work area. Together with analyses of the composition of the slag and of the elements contained in artefacts, they retrace the path taken by the ore from the deposit to the final product. Large-scale excavations have taken place at the smelter site at the source of the Trüllesseifen (Siegen-Oberschelden) and since 2009 at the Gerhardsseifen smelter site (Siegen-Niederschelden). In addition to this, we have carried out numerous smaller sondages throughout the work area, in order to give a more detailed characterization of the smelter, forge, and settlement sites. For example, we want to clarify aspects of the extent and efficiency of Iron Age smelting, and answer previously unresolved questions on the shape and construction of the regional smelting furnaces.
In collaboration with the Archaeobotanical Laboratory of the University of Cologne, and with the Department of Prehistory and Protohistory at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt, pollen and charcoal analyses are used to gather clues on the reshaping of the landscape as a result of deforestation, or on the timbers chosen for smelting. This interdisciplinary approach to research, which focuses on the natural as well as the cultural environment, can be expected to yield exciting new insights into this important early Central European mining landscape.


For further information please see the annual report 2012 of the Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum


Ongoing PhD thesis

Stephanie Menic
Iron production in the Siegerland in the Latène period: Chaîne opératoire And econometrics of process steps

Completed academic theses

Eveline Salzmann
Provenienzstudien an frühem Eisen im Siegerland

Stephanie Menic
Der latènezeitliche Schmiedeplatz Wilnsdorf-Rudersdorf/Höllenrain im Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein

Jennifer Garner
Der latènezeitliche Verhüttungsplatz in Siegen-Niederschelden „Wartestraße“


Project manager

Prof. Dr. Thomas Stöllner

Responsible body

Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum


Publications

  • J. Garner, Archäologische Ausgrabungen einer latènezeitlichen Eisenverhüttungsanlage an der Wartestraße in Siegen-Niederschelden. Siegerland 84, H. 2, 2007, 101-120.
  • J. Garner, Der Siegerländer Kuppelofen im europäischen Vergleich. Siegerland 57/2 (2010) 174-197.
  • J. Garner, Der latènezeitliche Verhüttungsplatz in Siegen-Niederschelden „Wartestraße“. Metalla 17.1/2 2010 (Bochum 2011).
  • J. Garner, T. Stöllner, Eisen im Siegerland – Das latènezeitliche Produktionsensemble von Siegen-Niederschelden „Wartestrasse“. H.-G. Horn, H. Hellenkemper, G. Isenberg, J. Kunow (Hrsg.), Von Anfang an. Archäologie in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Ausstellungskatalog Köln/Herne 2005/2006 (Mainz 2005) 355-358.
  • G. Gassmann, T. Stöllner, M. Baales, Siegerländer Eisenrevier. Archäologie in Deutschland 4, 2003, 51.
  • G. Gassmann, Ü. Yalçin, Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zum Siegerländer Eisen. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 15, 2008 (2009) 139-142.
  • G. Gassmann, Ü. Yalçin, Archäometallurgie des frühen Eisens im Siegerland. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 16, 2009 (2010) 163-165.
  • G. Gassmann, Ü. Yalçin, M. Jansen, Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur Primärproduktion des Eisens im Siegerland. Siegerland 57/2 (2010) 161-173.
  • T. Stöllner, Rohstoffgewinnung im rechtsrheinischen Mittelgebirge – Forschungen zum frühen Eisen. Siegerland 57/2 (2010) 101-132.
  • T. Stöllner, Die eisenzeitliche Montanregion im Siegerland – Forschungen der Jahre 2004-2009. In: T. Otten, H. Hellenkemper, J. Kunow, M. M. Rind (Hrsg.), Fundgeschichten – Archäologie in Nordrhein-Westfalen (Mainz 2010) 110-112.
  • T. Stöllner, J. Garner, G. Gassmann, Ü. Yalcin, Frühes Eisen im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge: Prospektionen im Siegerland. Jahresbericht Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum 14, 2007 (Bochum 2008) 127-129.
  • T. Stöllner, J. Garner, G. Gassmann, K. Röttger, U. Tegtmeier, Ü. Yalcin, Latènezeitliche Eisenwirtschaft im Siegerland: Interdisziplinäre Forschungen zur Wirtschaftsarchäologie. Vorbericht zu den Forschungen der Jahre 2002-2007. Metalla 16/2 (Bochum 2010).
  • T. Stöllner, J. Garner, Frühe Eisengewinnung im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge. Jahresbericht Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum 2006, 13 (Bochum 2007) 127-128.
  • T. Stöllner, J. Garner, Frühes Eisen im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge: Siegerland. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 15, 2008 (2009) 138-139.
  • T. Stöllner, G. Gassmann, Forschungsprojekt: „Frühe Eisengewinnung im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge“. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 9, 2002 (2003) 75-78.
  • T. Stöllner, G. Gassmann, Forschungsprojekt: „Frühe Eisengewinnung im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge“. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 10, 2003 (2004) 83-84.
  • T. Stöllner, G. Gassmann, J. Garner, Frühes Eisen im Mittelgebirgsraum: Das Siegerland. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 12, 2005 (2006) 117-118.
  • T. Stöllner, M. Zeiler, Frühes Eisen im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge. Jahresbericht des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 16, 2009 (2010) 161-163.
  • T. Stöllner, M. Zeiler, Frühes Eisen im Mittelgebirgsraum: Vorwort. Siegerland 57/2 (2010) 97-100.
  • T. Stöllner, M. Zeiler, Eisengewinnung im rechtsrheinischen Schiefergebirge: Montanarchäologie im Siegerland. Archäologie in Westfalen-Lippe 2009 (2010) 168-171.
  • T. Stöllner, M. Zeiler, Latènezeitliche Eisenwirtschaft im Siegerland. Jahresbericht des Instituts für Archäologische Wissenschaften der Ruhr-Universität Bochum 2, 2010, 69-71.
  • M. Zeiler, Montanarchäologische Forschungen im Siegerland – Vorbericht über die Tätigkeiten 2009. Siegerland 57/2 (2010) 133-160.